Ensure you’re copyright-cleared with Our solutions are developed with the goal of promoting respect for copyright. The Publi-© certificate, which appears on every document viewed, is proof of our commitment. It certifies that viewing the document is fully authorized, and that associated royalties have been automatically redistributed to publishers.

For companies concerned about intellectual property, also lets you manage the distribution of documents in electronic form. To do so, you simply need to use for organization, or use our search engine, for copyright clearance, which pays distribution rights.

In short, with, you can view or reproduce your articles electronically and in complete security, ensuring you peace of mind!

To learn more about copyright, click a link below:

What is copyright?

Copyright is an exclusive right to reproduce a work, in its entirety or in large part, in any material form. Among other things, it includes the exclusive right to publish a work, as well as to produce it, perform it publicly, translate it and broadcast it. Copyright can be exercised by the author, by the holder of the copyright, or by a duly authorized third party.

return to topreturn to top

How long does a copyright last?

In Canada, a copyright generally lasts until the end of the 50th year following the death of the author. In France, copyright protection remains in force for 70 years after the author’s death. Subsequently, the work belongs to the public domain and can be reproduced without authorization.

return to topreturn to top

What is a copyright-protected work?

As soon as an original work is created and stored on a material medium (ideas only are not protected), it’s copyrighted without need of any further formality. This protection is automatic and does not require registration of the work. A work can be literary, dramatic, musical or visual. Articles from newspapers and other publications constitute literary works. An article’s title can also be copyrighted if it’s original and distinctive.

return to topreturn to top

Is an electronically-distributed work protected by copyright?

Copyright laws are not limited to particular forms of expression or media, thus a copyrighted work does not lose its protection due to being distributed over the Internet, an intranet or an extranet.The advent of new technologies has merely created new artistic media. Works distributed electronically therefore enjoy the protection granted by copyright laws. This protection exists even if an Internet site provides free access to certain works. In no case does this free access authorize reproduction, unless clearly stated to this effect. Web sites generally post copyright-related notices that state the conditions of use of the works and documents presented.

return to topreturn to top

What are the consequences of copyright infringement?

Unauthorized use of an exclusive copyright, whether that of the author or the holder of the copyright, can have major consequences. In Canada, the Copyright Act provides for set damages whereby the amount can range from $500 to $20 000 for an infringement of a copyrighted work. Member states of the European Union adhere to legislation that provides for damages as well as penalties that can go as far as imprisonment. Maximum fines vary from a few thousand euros (Italy, Luxembourg) to up to almost €500 000 (Belgium), and even as high as €750 000 (France, for corporations). Certain countries do not set a maximum fine. Prison sentences can vary from a few days to up to 10 years (Greece, Great Britain, France).

return to topreturn to top

Can a work be copyrighted internationally?

By virtue of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Canada and France, among other countries, grant protection to foreign works by authors from signatory countries of the convention. Following the principle of national treatment, French works in Canada enjoy the protection granted by the Copyright Act ; in France, Canadian works enjoy the protection of the Code de propriété intellectuelle (Intellectual Property Code).

return to topreturn to top

How can I get permission to reproduce an article electronically?

Our Publi-© electronic certificate simplifies acquisition and management of electronic distribution rights. First, the document search and the acquisition of distribution rights are done online with for copyright clearance. Once this process is completed, the article you’ve selected is forwarded to you with the Publi-© stamp embedded. You then have the right to reproduce it.

Licences can also be granted if you wish to distribute a large number of articles to one or more users on a regular basis. To learn more about electronic distribution, write to us.

return to topreturn to top


Canadian Intellectual Property Office
Copyright Act
Code de propriété intellectuelle (Intellectual Property Code – in French)
World Intellectual Property Organization
Universal Copyright Convention